Nostra Aetate deliberations

Dialogika Resources

Submitted Draft: "On the Jews and Non-Christians"

September 1964

This text was submitted to the Council in September 1964 by the Council's Coordinating Commission and was a reworking of earlier drafts [click HERE for the various draft versions]. This iteration had been publicly discussed in the news media as a "watered down" version of the undebated but disseminated draft from the previous November.  It was offered as an appendix to the Schema on Ecumenism.  Note the new material on believers in other world religions, especially Muslims; the implication that guilt for the crucifixion might be attributed to Jews of Jesus' generation; and the rephrasing of a paragraph that at the time was widely interpreted to call for the conversion of Jews to Christianity. In introducing it on Sept. 25, Cardinal Bea made it clear that his Secretariat was not responsible for this revision and encouraged the Council Fathers to strengthen it. Over two dozen bishops and cardinals urged precisely that in interventions delivered on September 28 and 29, 1964.


(On the inheritance common to Christians and Jews.)

The Church of Christ gladly acknowledges that the beginnings of its faith and election, in accordance with God's mystery of salvation, are to be found already among the Patriarchs and Prophets. Indeed, all Christians believe that, as sons of Abraham by faith (cf. Gal 3 7), they are included in this Patriarch's vocation and that the salvation of the Church is mystically prefigured in the exodus of the chosen people from the land of bondage. Nor can the Church as a new creation in Christ (cf. Eph. 2, 15) and as the people of the New Covenant ever forget that it is a continuation of that people with whom God in his ineffable mercy once deigned to enter into the Old Covenant and to whom he chose to entrust the revelation contained in the Books of the Old Testament.

Moreover, the Church does not forget that from this Jewish people were born Christ, the Virgin Mary, as well as the apostles, the foundation and the pillars of the Church.

Further, the Church is always mindful and will never overlook Apostle Paul's words relating to the Jews, to whom belong "the adoption as sons and the glory, and the covenants and the giving of the law, and the worship, and the promises" (Rom. 9, 4).

Since such is the inheritance accepted by Christians from the Jews, this Holy Council is resolved expressly to further and to recommend mutual understanding and appreciation, to be obtained by theological study and fraternal discussion and, beyond that, just as it severely disapproves of any wrong inflicted upon human beings everywhere, it also deplores and condemns hatred and maltreatment of Jews.

It is also worth remembering that the union of the Jewish people with the Church is a part of the Christian hope. Accordingly, and following the teaching of Apostle Paul (cf. Rom. 11, 25), the Church expects in unshakable faith and with ardent desire the entrance of that people into the fullness of the people of God established by Christ.

Everyone should be careful, therefore, not to present the Jewish people as a rejected nation, whether it in catechetical instruction, in preaching of God's Word or in daily conversation. Neither should anything be said or done that could alienate human minds from the Jews. Equally, all should be on their guard not to impute to the Jews of our time that which was perpetrated in the Passion of Christ.

(All people have God as Father.)

The Lord Jesus has clearly confirmed that God is the Father of all humanity, as this was already stated in the Writings of the Old Testament and is suggested by reason itself. But we surely cannot appeal or pray to God as the Father of all if we deny brotherly behavior to some people who are all created in the image of God. The attitude of humanity toward God as Father and the attitude of individuals to their brothers and sisters are so closely connected that any negation of human brotherhood carries with it or leads to the negation of God himself for whom there can be no favoritism (cf. 2 Chr. 19, 7; Rom. 2, 11; Eph. 6, 9; Col. 3, 25; 1 Pet. 1, 17). The First Commandment is in fact so interwoven with the second that we cannot be forgiven our offenses unless we ourselves wholeheartedly forgive those who have offended us. Indeed, it was said already in the Old Law: "Have we not all one Father? Has not one God created us? Why do each of us deal treacherously with his brother?" (Mal. 2, 10); the same is even more clearly reaffirmed in the New Law: "He that does not love his brother whom he has seen, how can he love God whom he has not seen? And this is the commandment we have from God, that he who loves God loves his brother also." (1 Jn. 4, 20-21.)

Impelled by such love for our brothers, let us consider with great diligence views and doctrines which, though in many points are different from ours, in so many ways, however, carry the ray of that truth which gives light to every person born into this world. Thus we embrace also, and first of all, the Moslems who worship one personal and recompensing God and who in religious feeling as well as through many channels of human culture come near to us.

(Any kind of discrimination is to be condemned.)

In consequence, any theory or practice which leads to discrimination among individuals or between nation and nation, insofar as human dignity and the rights flowing therefrom are concerned, is devoid of foundation.

It is imperative, therefore, that all people of good will and Christians in particular abstain from any discrimination or abuse of human beings on grounds of their race, color, social status or religion. On the contrary, this Holy Council solemnly entreats believing Christians "to maintain friendly relations among the gentiles" (1 Pet. 2, 12) and if possible and insofar as it depends on them, to maintain peace with all people (cf. Rom. 12, 18); it enjoins them, moreover, to love not only the neighbor, but even the enemies, should they think they have any, so that they should be in truth the sons of the Father who is in heaven and who makes his sun rise over all (cf. Mt. 5, 44-45).